Saturday, March 14, 2020

Collage played an important role in the rise of avant-garde art of the earlier 20th century essay

Collage played an important role in the rise of avant-garde art of the earlier 20th century essay Collage played an important role in the rise of avant-garde art of the earlier 20th century essay Collage played an important role in the rise of avant-garde art of the earlier 20th century essayThe background information on the Avant Garde movement and collageThesis statement: Collage contributed to the rise of the Avant-Garde movement due to the original form that allowed artist to manifest their new ideas and communicate them to the audience in the plausible form.II The Development of art in the early 20th century  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A The rise of modernist movements  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   B The strife of artists for experiments, new forms and stylesIII Collage as a new form for Avant-Garde artists  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A Collage as a plausible form for self-expression of Avant-Garde artists  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   B Collage as a new opportunity for experiment in art for Avant-Gardists  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   C Collage as a medium for Avant-Garde artists to reach the mass audience  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   D Collage as a universal form of Avant-Garde that persists today due to the rise of new technologies, including di gital collageIV ConclusionCollage has had a considerable impact on the rise of the Avant-Garde movement due to wide opportunities for experiments and self-expression for Avant-Garde artists.Annotated BibliographyAdamowicz, Elza (1998).  Surrealist Collage in Text and Image: Dissecting the Exquisite Corpse. Cambridge University Press.The author focuses on the analysis of the surrealist collage with the specific impact of collage on the rise of Surrealism. The author draws specific examples which reveals the integration of surrealistic elements into collages and how collages allowed developing Surrealism due to their visual form different from conventional paintings.Maerhofer, John W. 2009.  Rethinking the Vanguard: Aesthetic and Political Positions in the Modernist Debate, 1917-1962. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.The author evaluates critically the development of the Avant-Garde movement. The author stands on the ground that the development of the Avant-Garde was accompanied by numerous experiments, which included the use of collages. At the same time, the author concludes that collages stimulated the rise of Avant-Garde because they became the new form of visual art that allowed artists implement their creative ideas in the new way.Mann, Paul.  The Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde. Indiana University Press, 1991.The author focuses on the analysis of the Avant-Garde movement, its rise and development. The author reveals distinct features of Avant-Garde and key factors that contributed to the progress of the movement. At this point, the book is noteworthy in terms of understanding of the rise and decline of the Avant-Garde.Ruddick Bloom, Susan (2006).  Digital Collage and Painting: Using Photoshop and Painter to Create Fine Art. New York: Focal Press.The author explores the vitality of collage in the visual art. The author offers the retrospective of the development of collage and its impact on the visual art. In this regard, the author po ints out a considerable impact of collage on the development of modernist art and the Avant-Garde movement. At the same time, the author reveals the potential of new, digital technologies in creation of collages and new experiments in the field of visual art and Avant-Gardist trends.Schechner, Richard (Autumn 2010) The Conservative Avant-Garde. New Literary History 41(4), 895-913.The article focuses on the early development of the Avant-Garde movement and factors that contributed to its development. Collage was one of the most popular forms used by Avant-Gardist artists and stimulated the fast progress of Avant-Garde. At the same time, the author points out that the original style and trends in the development of the Avant-Garde are still popular, while conservative trends in the Avant-Garde still use collages.Schechner, Richard (2002) The Five Avant-Gardes or [and] or None?  The Twentieth-Century Performance Reader, 2nd ed., ed. Michael Huxley and Noel Witts. New York: Routledg e.The author focuses on the study of specific manifestations of the Avant-Garde movement referring to works of Avant-Gardist artists. The author attempts to show how artists evolved and moved toward Avant-Garde.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

W7A Back-up and Recovery Plan in Data Warehousing Essay

W7A Back-up and Recovery Plan in Data Warehousing - Essay Example le backups; (5) â€Å"synchronization of the backups with the daily incremental loads; (and finally, (6) saving of the incremental load files to be included as part of recovery if applicable† (p. 507). For the recovery options, Ponniah (2010) provided suggestions that would assist data warehouse administrators in designing which options would cater to the organization’s requirements. One of the recovery options would be to use best practices through an examination of various disaster scenarios and how the organization managed to recover the information. The recovery procedure would thereby be adjusted according to the needs of the organization, as well as the time required to recover crucial data. From the strategies recommended for back-ups (separating schedules for static and active data, as well as differential and log file back-ups with daily incremental loads), the data warehouse administrator should be able to recover the needed information within clearly stipulated time frames. The scope of back-up functions actually depends on the volume and kind of data that requires backing-up. As noted, there are active and static data where the frequency of back-up schedules would differ (more frequent back-up schedules for active data in conjunction with less frequent back-up schedules for static data) (Ponniah, 2010). Likewise, depending on the incremental data that the organization puts in on a daily basis, the scope of the back-up function follows accordingly. To ensure readiness to recover from disasters, the back-up files must be stored in strategic areas that are safe and secure. Likewise, point persons who could be authorized and assigned to perform relevant functions pertinent to back-up and recovery should be aware of their respective roles and responsibilities in the process. As emphasized, the data warehouse administration should be prepared in addressing the following questions and concerns: (1) downtime that users could tolerate during the recovery

Monday, February 10, 2020

Martin luther in germany Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Martin luther in germany - Essay Example But he was not confined to lecturing at the University and was invited to preach in the Parish Church, where his preaching became highly influential. His disillusionment with the Pope followed his short visit to Rome in 1510 (Broome, 5) which became reflected in his preachings. In 1512 Luther was made a Doctor of Divinity at Wittenberg University, and in 1516, he was asked to preach the Gospel as was the truth to him, in a large number of monasteries in the Thuringian area. Luther condemned the Catholic Church’s collection of Papal Indulgences in 1517, (Bainton, 35) and his works against Papal ideology, including his 95 Theses, resulted in his excommunication from the Church in 1521. Following his appearance before the Diet of Worms, and the ban on placed on Luther’s works, Luther was hidden behind the secure walls of Wartburg Castle. At Wartburg, Luther continued his prolific writing and continued to influence the reformation occurring in the Church in Wittenberg retur ning to Wittenberg in March 1522. On 25th June 1525, Luther married a former nun, Katherina Von Bara and together they had 6 children. The Luther household was in the Augustinian monastery in Wittenberg and also included Luther’s sister’s 6 children. From there, Lucas continued his reformation against the Papal doctrines through his preaching and writing. Martin Luther died on 18th February 1546 in his home-town of Eisleben during a visit accompanied by his 3 sons

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Formative Assessment Essay Example for Free

Formative Assessment Essay These methods also enable me, as a teacher to measure success within the classroom. To evaluate whether learning is taking place, there are three assessment methods to use. Initial Assessment: To assess the learning capabilities of the learner an initial assessment will take place. This will enable me to determine whether there are any learning difficulties that may affect the learning and teaching process. Once any difficulties are found the relevant support can be given to the learner. Formative Assessment: This method is used to monitor the learning progress of the learners during the course. It will enable me to provide feedback on their progress and also give the learner the opportunity to give me feedback on my performance. This method can also highlight ant problems that may need o be addressed. Summative Assessment; Summative assessments takes place at the end of each course or learning session. It will assess to what extent learning has been achieved and to enable me to re-evaluate my own teaching methods. This will allow verifiers to assign course grades and certification. 1. 2 EXPLAIN THE USE OF METHODS OF ASSESSMENT IN LIFELONG LEARNING To explain how assessments show progress and achievement, it is essential to learn what an assessment is. Assessment for learning is a term used to describe how evidence of student learning is recorded by me the teacher and is used by both students and teachers to decide where a student is within their learning and what they need to do better or to keep to the level that they are working at. Assessment for learning is a very effective way to put on record that learning and good teaching are being achieved. Assessment for learning is a joint process between student and teacher where both are engaged in an on-going process of student progress and development. The assessment to use will depend on the subject in my case spanish and any requirements of the organisations involved. Although all teachers should use some initial assessment to identify needs of the learner and to see if they have any previous experience in the language work set to them which in my subject would be spanish. Assessment methods can be recorded for group or individualls to reflect on the ability of the students. The student or learning group and the activities you select and the learning outcomes might affect your choice of assessment methods in a lesson. Formative assessment takes place during learning with the purpose of improving learning and involves me as the teacher giving feed back into the learning process to help me as the teacher, to decide whether a student is ready to move on or needs to practice what is being learnt, or has still yet to learn. It is usually the teacher’s final decision as to whether a student is ready to move on to the next stage of the course. Formative assessment can take a variety of forms; peer and self assessment, verbal and written, questioning and marking. Summative assessment happens at the end of a course. To measure and talk to the student/groups about what they have learned so far in the lessons. Summative learning is less about informing and improving the learning process but more about measuring the end result; for example end of year exam. 1. 3 Compare the strengths and limitations of assessment methods to meet individual learner needs. Student questioning is an effective way for engaging students within the learning process, obtaining existing knowledge of the chosen course and demonstrating, thinking and understanding of the students enables me to informally yet formatively assess their knowledge and the understanding of the progress the student is making with their studying. For example; at the beginning of my micro teach session, which was a De-fragmentation learning exercise, I asked the group if any of them had any previous experiences. This aided me in what level to teach the group. A good ice-breaker can be used as a group activity, as in my micro teach i got the group to exchange questions and answers with the person next to them to get the group engaged. I then dealt with each learner individually by asking them how they were getting on and if they understood the subject. This simple but effective method engaged the group, then I could address the learners individually and provide individual needs for the said learner. David Miliband stated: ‘We need to do more than engage and empower pupils and parents in the selection of a school: their engagement has to be effective in the day-to-day processes of education, at the heart of the way schools create partnerships with professional teachers and support staff to deliver tailor-made services, In other words we need to embrace individual empowerment within as well as between schools. ’ References: Milliband,D (2004)’Personalised learning meeting individual learner needs’ Published by The Learning and kills Network. 2. Understand ways to involve learners in the assessment process. 2. 1. Explain ways to involve the learner in the assessment process. Carol Boston says ‘Black and William (1998b) define assessment broadly to include all activities that teachers and students undertake to get information that can be used diagnostically to alter teaching and learning. Under this definition, assessment encompasses teacher observation, classroom discussion, and analysis of student work, including homework and tests. Assessments become formative when the information is used to adapt teaching and learning to meet student need. Where and how do we include students in the formative assessment process? What is the role of technology in this feedback cycle? ’ Formative assessment, as I understand it, is an on-going process where both teachers and students evaluate assessment evidence in order to make adjustments to their teaching and learning. Robert Marzano has called it one of the more powerful weapons in a teachers arsenal. The formative assessment process can strengthen students abilities to assess their own progress, to set and evaluate their own learning goals, and to make adjustments accordingly. Formative assessment can also elicit valuable feedback from students about what teachers are doing effectively and what they could do better. Student Self-Assessment and Reflection Activities which promote meta-cognitive thinking and ask students to reflect on their learning processes are key to the formative assessment process. When students are asked to think about what they have learned and how they have learned it (the learning strategies theyve used), they are better able to understand their own learning processes and can set new goals for themselves. Students can reflect on their learning in many ways: answering a set of questions, drawing a picture or set of pictures to represent their learning process, talking with a partner, keeping a learning log or journal, etc. Goal Sheets Having students set their own goals and evaluate their progress toward achieving them is an effective part of the formative assessment process. Goal setting has a positive effect on student motivation and learning when the goals are specific and performance based, relatively short-term, and moderately difficult. Goal sheets are an effective way to help students set goals and track their progress. It is best to identify specific goals. For example, I will read in English for 20 minutes each night is more specific than I will read more. Also, goals need to be achievable in a short period of time and not impossibly difficult. The teacher can model how to set effective goals and also how to evaluate ones progress toward achieving them by asking students to periodically write or talk about what they have achieved, what they still would like to achieve, and how they will do it. 2. 2. Explain the role of peer and self-assessment in the assessment programme F. Dochy (2006) said ‘The growing demand for lifelong learners and reflective practitioners has stimulated a re-evaluation of the relationship between learning and its assessment, and has influenced to a large extent the development of new assessment forms such as self-, peer, and co-assessment. Three questions are discussed: (1) what are the main findings from research on new assessment forms such as self-, peer and co-assessment; (2) in what way can the results be brought together; and (3) what guidelines for educational practitioners can be derived from this body of knowledge? A review of literature, based on the analysis of 63 studies, suggests that the use of a combination of different new assessment forms encourages students to become more responsible and reflective. The article concludes with some guidelines for practitioners. ’ Principles for using self and peer assessment 1. The purpose for using self and peer assessment should be explicit for staff and students A major reason for using self and peer assessment is for its role in developing students skills in improving learning and in helping students to improve their performance on assessed work. Additionally, it has a place as a means of summative assessment. 2. There is no reason why peer and self assessment should not contribute to summative assessment In many such cases such assessment will not contribute a major proportion of the mark until it has been well tried and tested. However, in a well-regulated scheme, there is no reason to limit the proportion of the marks involved. It is particularly important that the principles below are noted. 3. Moderation For any situation in which the mark from peer or self assessment contributes towards the final mark of the module, the member of staff should maintain the right to moderate student-allocated marks. The initial step in alteration of a student-allocated mark may be negotiation with the student(s) concerned. 4. Instances of unfair or inappropriate marking need to be dealt with sensitively Any instances of collusive (friendship) marking need to be dealt with sensitively and firmly. 5. The quality of feedback on student work must be maintained In situations of self and peer assessment, students are usually in a position to learn more than from situations of tutor-marked work. They learn from their engagement in assessing and frequently from oral, in addition to written feedback. However, the tutor should monitor the feedback and, where appropriate, elaborate it to ensure that students receive fair and equal treatment. 6. Assessment procedures should always involve use of well-defined, publicly-available assessment criteria While this is true of all assessment, it is particularly true where relatively inexperienced assessors (students) are involved. The assessment criteria may be developed by the tutor, but greater value is gained from the procedure if students are involved in developing the criteria themselves. 7. Involvement of students in assessment needs careful planning Many students see assessment as a job for staff, but at a later stage they are likely to recognise the benefits to their academic learning and skill development. Initial efforts will take time and tutor support. For these reasons, it is preferable that the use of peer and self assessment is seen as a strategy to improve learning and assessment across a whole programme. The common situation is for these assessment procedures to appear in isolated modules, often not at level 1. 8. Self and peer assessment procedures should be subject to particularly careful monitoring and evaluation from the tutor and students point of view It can take time for such procedures to run smoothly and for this reason, the initial involvement of relatively few marks or solely formative assessment is wise. Student feedback to the tutor on the procedure will be important. 9. The use of peer and self assessment should be recognised as skill development in itself Such procedures are not just another means of assessment but represent the development of self-appraisal/evaluative, analytical, critical and reflective skills. These are important as employability skills and can be recognised in the learning outcomes of a module. References: Dochy,F (2006) Studies in Higher Education. Published by Web of Science(2006) 3. 1. Explain the need to keep records of assessment of learning. Record keeping is part of the role and responsibility of the tutor and some often these records are required by law or codes of practice in the institution or industry. But there are boundaries and legislation regarding what can be collected and kept and how it can be used. The Data Protection Act 1998 states that records must be kept securely, be relevant and not excessive, accurate and up to date and not kept for longer than necessary. Students can request a copy of all information held about them under The Freedom of Information Act 2000. All important things to bear in mind. The need for keeping records I like that you are forced to think about why there are these records, not just what they are or how they work. Why are these records being kept, to what end? †¢ Track progress †¢ Prove achievement. †¢ Identify issues such as low attendance / learning difficulties †¢ Ensure all sections of course have been completed It could be that a lot of these are required by your institution. But I’m not sure that’s the best answer: â€Å"because I have to†. Take it one step further back and think about why the organisation requires you to keep or submit them. Once you’ve thought about what records you need then it is on to how you collect and categorise that information. The types of records you would maintain A lot of this focuses more on the pastoral side, which I think is nice. Make sure you show a variety of types of records, to show you have thought about the full spectrum: †¢ Attendance and assessment †¢ Everything in between †¢ Tutorials, one to ones, learning reviews / goals / plans 3. 2. Summarize requirements for keeping records of assessment in an organisation. Recording and Keeping Assessment Results Most organisations have a process in place for recording the results of assessments, and so does your Registered Training Organisation. It is not uncommon as well for assessors to maintain their own records in case of any follow up or appeals. A generic approach would be: †¢ Assessor either records or passes on the results for recording †¢ Assessor checks that the result has been accurately recorded †¢ Result provided to learner There are several reasons why the results need to be kept: †¢ Feedback to learner †¢ Legislative requirements †¢ Record in case of appeal †¢ Company records for future training needs Recognition of Prior Learning Another reason to maintain a record is for the recognition of prior learning and credit transfer processes. If outcomes can be matched by different training organisations detailed records of exactly how competency is assessed simplify the process. It also means, the competency a learner has acquired in one environment may be considered in another, different environment. With records a learner can apply to have prior learning recognised often before commencing a new training program. While it is necessary to keep a record of the actual result, it can be useful to also keep details on how the assessment was made. Training Records and Confidentiality Generally speaking, the only way an external person is able to access another persons record is with the written permission of the person involved. |Access to records must be restricted for the sake of confidentiality. | | |Generally, managers and supervisors have limited access to personal files, but consider: | | |Who should have access to assessment records? | | |Why would they need the information? | | |What level of detail do they require? | | Each organisation will have a policy and procedures for access that should comply with ethical and legal obligations. It would be worthwhile checking your store policy and procedures in relation to this area.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Science of Religion :: Spiritual History Bible Papers

The Science of Religion The cover of the latest Newsweek caught my eye as I was running out the door to class: a vaguely futuristic, androgynous ascetic was basking in the glow of an ethereal ray of light, face calm, hands uplifted to receive inspiration. In the center of this enlightening beam, the title professed, "God and the Brain: How We're Wired for Spirituality." Who could resist such an evocative article? I flipped through it - it started with some stuff about how to achieve a spiritual state (by turning off environmental fear and orientation sensors in the brain), proudly confirmed that scientists can now track brain activity of Tibetan Buddhist meditation and Catholic prayers?I was starting to grow bored and skim faster; then my eye caught, "Neurotheology is stalking bigger game than simply affirming that spiritual feelings leave neural footprints?By pinpointing the brain areas involved in spiritual experiences and tracing how such experiences arise, the scientists hope to learn whether anyone can have such experiences, and why spiritual experiences have the qualities they do" (54). The article went on to discuss how certain key religious figures from history are hypothesized to have had temporal-lobe epilepsy, a condition that yields "focused bursts of electrical activity called 'temporal-lobe transients' [which] may yield mystical experiences" (55). In order to test this, neuroscientist Michael Persinger built an electromagnetic helmet to directly stimulate the temporal lobes of the brain. The helmet produced the intended results, encouraging "out-of-body experience" and "a sense of the divine" in its users; thus Persinger concluded that "religious experiences are evoked by mini electrical storms in the temporal lobes, and that such storms can be triggered by anxiety, personal crisis, lack of oxygen, low blood sugar and simple fatigue - suggesting a reason that some people 'find God' in such moments" (55). The article moves on to suggest that people capable of "dissociation" - identified by their creativity, innovative tendencies, open-mindedness, and close in teraction of the conscious and subconscious mind - "may be genetically or temperamentally predisposed to mystical ability" (56). Finally, after boasting that scientists can both monitor and produce "spiritual" experiences in the laboratory, after defining the physical causes of out-of-body experiences and divine inspiration as malfunctions or misinterpretations of the brain, and after claiming a sort of personality-based predestination, the article concedes that "it is likely that [scientists] will never resolve the greatest question of all - namely, whether our brain wiring creates God, or whether God created our brain wiring. The Science of Religion :: Spiritual History Bible Papers The Science of Religion The cover of the latest Newsweek caught my eye as I was running out the door to class: a vaguely futuristic, androgynous ascetic was basking in the glow of an ethereal ray of light, face calm, hands uplifted to receive inspiration. In the center of this enlightening beam, the title professed, "God and the Brain: How We're Wired for Spirituality." Who could resist such an evocative article? I flipped through it - it started with some stuff about how to achieve a spiritual state (by turning off environmental fear and orientation sensors in the brain), proudly confirmed that scientists can now track brain activity of Tibetan Buddhist meditation and Catholic prayers?I was starting to grow bored and skim faster; then my eye caught, "Neurotheology is stalking bigger game than simply affirming that spiritual feelings leave neural footprints?By pinpointing the brain areas involved in spiritual experiences and tracing how such experiences arise, the scientists hope to learn whether anyone can have such experiences, and why spiritual experiences have the qualities they do" (54). The article went on to discuss how certain key religious figures from history are hypothesized to have had temporal-lobe epilepsy, a condition that yields "focused bursts of electrical activity called 'temporal-lobe transients' [which] may yield mystical experiences" (55). In order to test this, neuroscientist Michael Persinger built an electromagnetic helmet to directly stimulate the temporal lobes of the brain. The helmet produced the intended results, encouraging "out-of-body experience" and "a sense of the divine" in its users; thus Persinger concluded that "religious experiences are evoked by mini electrical storms in the temporal lobes, and that such storms can be triggered by anxiety, personal crisis, lack of oxygen, low blood sugar and simple fatigue - suggesting a reason that some people 'find God' in such moments" (55). The article moves on to suggest that people capable of "dissociation" - identified by their creativity, innovative tendencies, open-mindedness, and close in teraction of the conscious and subconscious mind - "may be genetically or temperamentally predisposed to mystical ability" (56). Finally, after boasting that scientists can both monitor and produce "spiritual" experiences in the laboratory, after defining the physical causes of out-of-body experiences and divine inspiration as malfunctions or misinterpretations of the brain, and after claiming a sort of personality-based predestination, the article concedes that "it is likely that [scientists] will never resolve the greatest question of all - namely, whether our brain wiring creates God, or whether God created our brain wiring.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Internet Censorship Essay

WebInternet censorship (Is it possible to keep children safe from potential internet dangers? ) by: Eko Setiyo Utomo The Internet has become a part of modern life style for most people. In developed countries, most people use the internet at home. Children can access the internet for everything, from playing games, to doing schoolwork, to chatting with friends via e-mail, to surfing the web. Most online services provide children with a vast range of resources such as encyclopedias, current events coverage, and access to libraries and other valuable material. However, there can be real risks and dangers for an unsupervised child because most materials on the Internet are not only uncensored but also unedited. Adults can be expected to make their own evaluations of what they find. Children, who lack experience and knowledge, can not do this. Strohm (n. d. ) claims that the essential issue in the internet is internet pornography, which is a topic debated by many experts, but many other issues dangerous to children are of concern too. Children who have access to the internet can easily be lured into something dangerous. As stated by Manista (2002), â€Å"censorship on the internet has become an issue for a number of very specific reasons†. Parents should not assume that their children are safe online from internet dangers; and they should not just rely on soft ware to protect their children. According to Schwartz (2004), using filters to block access to undesirable materials may never prove to be the solution. In addition, governments should have the power to decide what is not acceptable for the minds of children. In contrast, it is argued by some people that supervising access to the internet could limit the creativity of children. n addition, according to Males (2000), statistical evidence does not support to filter the internet. He describes that several kinds of sex offences has declined since period internet (1990s) access in America. This essay will investigate the unsuitable nature of much of the material on the internet for children. It will also examine the devastating and lasting e ffect of pornographic images on children. Thus, parents must play a key role to keep children safe from potential internet dangers. Finally, it will suggest that parents should teach children how to choose suitable materials on the internet. The first section of this essay will explain why internet pornography and some of the various resources unsuitable for children can have a harmful effect on children. The next section will maintain that soft ware is essential to protect children from site danger. Finally, this essay will argue that parents themselves should be aware of the dangers on the internet. It is important to recognize that pornographic images on the internet can have a devastating and lasting effect on children. Children using the internet unsupervised can view free pornography pictures through accidental accessing. Strohm (n. d. ) has claimed that it is a commonly held belief that pornography on the Internet presents a serious danger to children online, and that the effects of pornography are progressive and addictive for many people. He further points out that most pornography sites are very easy to find. These sites always invite children and teens to take part in exposure. Children using internet chat rooms are the main target of sexual predators, often with traumatic results (Nuss 1999). Pornography isn’t the only thing parents don’t want their children to see on the Internet. Parents are also concerned about anarchist, Neo-Nazi, and all sorts of other propaganda, as well as information on computer hacking and building explosives. There are hundreds of thousands of web sites promoting illicit activities. However, many individuals and organized groups at the same time are attempting to protect children from information on homosexuality, violence, drugs and alcohol, hate speech, and the environment. In addition, according to Males (2000), children can become victims of internet crime, such as pedophile contacts with children and child pornography distribution. It is possible that some children may be visiting internet sites and communicating with potential internet predators without parent know. Otherwise, some pornographers argue, â€Å"In the right hands porn has its place. As anyone in the industry will readily proclaim, millions of men and women enjoy Web erotica harmlessly, and some couples turn to porn to enhance their sex lives† (Jerome et al. 2004). Children may have the opportunity to become informed about adult lifestyle. Pornography materials on the internet or ther media can be a valuable educational tool for children to understand about the concept of sexuality (Reisman & Ray 1999). Furthermore, according to Males (2000), the internet access period (1990s) does not seem to have brought about any particularly bad effects. Nonetheless, children have access to computers and the internet not only at home, but in many other places, what they choose to view is very difficult to control. It is a concern of many parents that fr eedom of information presented by the internet can pollute their main of children. Many kinds of methods have been implemented to avoid some of these negative effects of the internet. First of all, â€Å"School on the Web†, for example, is a program has been developed by Microsoft and MCI to assist many schools attending information about education world on the internet. Moreover, Cyber Patrol, a popular soft ware, is a soft ware program that contains a twofold filtering technique. It can block unsuitable sites from a list of restricted web addresses (Reeks 2005).. Others products are Bess/N2H2, CyberSnoop, I-Gear, Internet Filter, Library Channel, NetShepherd. On Guard, Parental Discretion, Rated-PG, SmartFilter, Tattle-Tale, WebSense, and X-Stop. These soft ware are designed to present at one or more many kinds of computers. According to Schrader (1999), these products offer five basic approaches – bad word, bad site, bad topic, site content rating systems and bad service – to control expressive content on the internet which may be set by the individual user or built into the program. In addition, children using the internet can also be prevented from disclosing their personal details via e-mail or chat room with the application of soft ware, such as Net Nanny. Meanwhile, The Platforms for Internet Content Selection (PICS) provides particular-labeling vocabularies, which work in different way to filter, to block inappropriate materials. According to Resnick and Miller (1996) the parent, as a user, can select every material in the certain label that is provided by software to block unsuitable sites. Nevertheless, it is an impossible task to be able to censor everything on the internet because the internet is an infinite global network. Males (2000) maintains that the internet would be a useless tool for students if it is blocked, or filtered. Filters can easily block student out of websites that they need to access for research simply because they contain words that have been flagged as inappropriate. He also believes that People who worry about the internet have a phobia or anxiety disorder which is not concerned about real problems. However, using appropriate soft ware can help to minimize the negative effects of the internet, even if many weaknesses exist in various software. Parents can play a key role in helping young people to be aware of the dangers and can get practical help on keeping children safe online. Governments especially, which have the power to decide what is not acceptable for the eyes of children, should make many regulations to help parents to keep children safe from potential internet danger. In late 1999, the Australian Government established NetAlert to provide independent advice and education on managing access to and usage of the Internet (NetAlert 2005). First of all, parents need to build trusting relationships with children and set a good example. Most parents teach their children not to give out information to strangers, not to open the door if they are home alone (AACAP 1997). As a result, it is hopped that children never give their name, phone number, e-mail address, password, postal address, school, or picture without their parent permission. Furthermore, parents should also teach children how to search and find many materials that are suitable for young people (in Healey ed. 2002). Parents are strongly encouraged to speak openly with their children about online dangers and monitor their online activities. Moreover, it is important for parents to be aware that they can not assume that their child will be protected by the supervision or regulation provided by the online services. Only parents can judge when a young person is mature enough to access the internet. Nuss (1999) also claims that children will be much safer accessing the internet if parents take the time to learn to use the internet first. However, children often feel that as Internet users, they know how to make a decision about what materials are harmful. Moreover, when students are exploring the Net for different kinds of materials, they are essentially exploring the real world (Singhal 1997). The internet is one of the contexts in which young people can discover themselves, what is normal and abnormal in their behavior (in Healey ed. 002). However, because most children do not understand what materials on the internet are real or just imagined, parents should not trust children to use the internet without supervision. In conclusion, the internet is a valuable tool for assisting in the education of children. However, when children are online, they can easily be lured into something dangerous. Children have access to online information that promotes hate, violence and pornography. These can influence their behavior and even be harmful. Filter soft ware is the most effective way to protect children from inappropriate materials on the internet. Therefore, parents, who play a key role, should talk to their children about what is online and what might happen online. Finally, the government should use its power to control those sites that provide unsuitable material for young people.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Julius Caesar Who is the Better Tragic Hero, Caesar or...

The Search for the Perfect Hero In the world today people consider a hero to be someone like Superman or Spider-Man. In the dictionary a hero is considered or defined as a person of distinguished courage or ability, admired for their brave deeds and noble qualities. Though a hero is thought to be free of mistakes they all have tragic flaws like everyone else. A tragic flaw is explained by Aristotle’s definition, which says that: a tragic hero as a character of great reputation and prosperity whose misfortune is not due to depravity or vice, for the hero is a virtuous man or woman but to an error in judgment resulting from a tragic flaw. Sometimes this flaw is an excess of virtue. In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare†¦show more content†¦Brutus has great prosperity because he has friends in high places. Also Caesar and Brutus have extremely strong reputations. Reputation is defined as the estimation in which a person or thing is held, by the communit y or the public generally. Caesar got his reputation by his ability to command and take over. â€Å"And then he offered it the third time. He put it the third time by, and still he refused it (I.ii.241-242). Casca says that he saw Antony offering Caesar the crown three times by the approval of all the citizens of Rome. People usually only get the crown offered to them once but Caesar got it offered to him three times so it proves that the citizens of Rome love Caesar so much that they gave him more chances then he needed. Though Caesar has a strong reputation Brutus also has a reputation but he has the stronger reputation of the two. Brutus got his reputation by where he came from and what his family has done in the past. â€Å"Brutus had rather be a villager† (I.ii.172). When Brutus states that he would rather be a villager rather than have power, he means that if Caesar continues to rule he would he could not tolerate Caesar’s tyranny. This shows the power Brutus ha s by implying, that if Caesar was chosen for king he would abuse his authority. Reputation is a huge thing but if others do not know how to control it they should not be given that power. Both Caesar and Brutus have immense virtues. AShow MoreRelatedThe Tragic Hero Of Marcus Junius Brutus Minor Essay1418 Words   |  6 Pagesblock October 27, 2015 Tragic hero Marcus Junius Brutus Minor was the son of Marcus Junius Brutus Maior and Servilia Caepionis. His father was killed by Pompey the Great in dubious circumstances after he had taken part in the rebellion of Lepidus; his mother was the half-sister of Cato the Younger, and later Julius Caesar s mistress. Some sources refer to the possibility of Caesar being his real father,despite Caesar s being only 15 years old when Brutus was born. 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